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Archive for the ‘Smith’ Category

Recently, I began looking at the Arnolds and Smiths from North Providence and Smithfield, Rhode Island again. I am looking for Rachel, the wife of Thomas Arnold (1733 – ?).  I have written previously about Thomas and Rachel in A Hint from an Angell and The Brick Wall Stories, Lucy Arnold, Part 4.  I estimate that Rachel was born around 1735 (based on first child born mid-1750’s), and signed a deed in 1768.  She may have been a Smith.  Based on the naming of her children, she may have had a Lucy, Asa, Aaron, Catherine, Philadelphia or Marcy in her family. I am related to Rachel (Smith?) in the following way:

Rachel (Smith?) (? – ?)    7th great grandmother
- Lucy Arnold (? – ?)
- Marcy Ballou (1778 – ?)
- Nancy Ann Aldrich (1800 – 1879)
- Ellis Aldrich Darling (1824 – 1883)
- Addison Parmenter Darling (1856 – 1933)
- Russell Earl Darling (1883 – 1959)
- Edna May Darling (1905 – 1999)  (My grandmother)

The search

Up until this point, I have concentrated on some good compiled sources on the Smithfield Arnolds (investigating the sources noted in footnotes), and some Smithfield deeds for Thomas Arnold, as well as all the usual sources one might pursue for this period.

I have always been uncomfortable with how Thomas Arnold’s story seems to stop around 1776, and decided to pursue the history of each of his children, to see if I could find evidence of his subsequent life and a possible move away from Smithfield.  There is no evidence that Thomas ever served in the military.

Ultimately, my goals are also to determine if Thomas had dealings or proximity with Rachel’s family, and to find as many links as I can to Smiths, or any family that could be Rachel’s family.

Cumberland Cemetery (CU003), Dexter Street.

Cumberland Cemetery (CU003), Dexter Street, Cumberland, R.I.

Rachel’s children

Richard Benson’s book (see below) gives some information on the children of Thomas and Rachel Arnold.  Lacking birth records for the children, he lists six possible children, gleaned from other sources, such as their marriage records, and records his sources and additional details in the footnotes, p. 242-243.

  • Lucy Arnold married Richard Ballou around 1777.  They had the following children recorded in Cumberland (Arnold, volume 3, p. 78): Marcy, Arnold, Lydia, Augustice, Thomas, Richard, Lucy, Willard, Polly Arnold.
Phylia Collar, wife of Hezekiah Collar, died September 15, 1845. The stone leaning up against hers is Pardon Newell.

Phylia Collar, wife of Hezekiah Collar, died September 15, 1845 Aged 80 years 6 mo. The stone leaning up against hers is for Pardon Newell.  I don’t know who that is.

  • Asa Arnold  1755 -?.  Asa Arnold appeared in the federal census of 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820 and 1830 in Smithfield, however I doubt that’s him. Two reasons:
    • There is another Asa Arnold (son of Rufus Arnold and Ruth Eddy) who married Patience Read in Smithfield in 1797 and later moved to Painted Post, New York. That Asa had a daughter Dianna born around 1800 (same as Aaron, below) who married Paris Wheelock in Smithfield in 1818.  Sometime after that, much of that family departed for Painted Post. Asa and Patience were buried in Corning, New York according to FindaGrave.com. So they were in Smithfield for most of those years.
    • The marriage of “Asa Arnold of Smithfield, R. I., & widow Sarah Jacobs, Sept 14, 1788″ appears in the Middletown, Connecticut section of this book:  Early Connecticut Marriages as Found on Ancient Church Records Prior to 1800, Sixth Book, p. 109.  Although the 1790 federal census record on Ancestry.com has some fading on the relevant page, “Asa Amasa Arnold” seems to be living there.  A petition for divorce by Sarah, wife of Asa [Amasa] Arnold was filed in 1803; the papers are indexed in this volume from the Connecticut State Library, including a marriage certificate.  I will be following up. The 1790 census shows an extra male under 16, and 3 extra females in the household; the 1800 census shows only the couple.  Based on the bad behavior I noted in the divorce records, it’s hard to believe Thomas and Rachel ever came to live with Asa in Connecticut.  After the divorce, Asa’s whereabouts are unknown to me, but he may have returned to Rhode Island.  I do not know the names of children, if any.
  • Catherine Arnold  1757 – ?, married 1777 Joseph Razee (1748-1814), son of Joseph, of Cumberland.  According to Arnold’s Vital Records of R.I., vol. 3, p. 118, they had the following children in Cumberland between 1778 and 1788: Lucina, Rachel, Eunice, Aaron, William and Asa.   There is a Joseph Razey buried in the Ballou Cemetery on Mendon Road in Cumberland, according to FindAGrave.  I have not yet found information about Catherine’s death or burial.
  • Aaron Arnold  c1759 – 4 Jan 1829.  Married his first cousin Amy Eddy in 1799.  Served in the Revolutionary War (see below).  Arnold records children Dianna, 1799, Nancy, 1801, Peleg, 1803, Clarinda, 1807, and Sally, 1814.  Received a military pension beginning 1818.  In April, 1825 the R.I. General Assembly received a petition from Aaron Arnold of Smithfield for the benefit of the act entitled “an act for the relief of insolvent debtors” (Rhode-Island American (Providence, RI) XVII:60, p.4; April 26, 1825).  Died in Slatersville, R.I., 1829 “formerly of Cumberland.”
  • Philadelphia Arnold (1765-1845) married Hezekiah Caller (son of Jonathan) in 1794.  See notes, below.  An examination of the federal census records for Cumberland in 1800 shows the adult couple with a boy and girl, each under 10.  In 1810, the household consists of the two adults and a teenage girl.  Hezekiah and Phylia Collar are buried in Cumberland Cemetery (CU003).  It is south of the area where the Ballous and Aldriches lived.  I do not know the names of children, if any.
  • Lavina Arnold. Benson included this name because of a Quaker church record of Lavina “daughter of Thomas”.  I’m not as convinced that any Quaker was part of this immediate family (and this name was not included in Welcome A. Greene’s manuscript, see below), and there were other Thomas Arnolds, but I will pursue the lead.

Expanding my knowledge through Revolutionary War pension files

I found a Revolutionary War pension file for Hezekiah, which led me to the version of his name used there, Hezekiah Collar (pension S-21138, Rhode Island, Fold3.com).  From that (through FindAGrave.com), I found his grave in the Cumberland Cemetery with his wife “Phylia.”  Using the extremely helpful Google Map of Rhode Island cemeteries, I located Cumberland Historic Cemetery 003, and visited there.  Knowing from the pension file that Hezekiah reported himself as growing up impoverished, and that he substituted for others drafted during the war (something that usually involved a payment, so it was done by those needing money) there is no reason to think he inherited land in that particular area. I wonder if he purchased land in Cumberland – perhaps as a result of his Revolutionary War activities.

Aaron Arnold served in the Revolutionary War as a seaman, and was on the Providence when it went to France. He was captured in South Carolina and imprisoned by the British for eight months in the Bahamas, 1780.  The pension file says that he received a military pension beginning 1818.   He died in Slatersville, R.I., 1829 “formerly of Cumberland”.

Joseph Razee is hard to distinguish from his cousin of the same name (son of Benjamin) although the pension file in Fold3 definitely refers to the cousin. But the service records could be for both.  So I am not yet sure if Joseph served in the war.

The Ballou Cemetery, Cumberland Historic Cemetery 009, Mendon Road.  The graves pictured are of some Carpenters.

The Ballou Cemetery, Cumberland Historic Cemetery 009, Mendon Road. The graves pictured are of some Carpenters.

Visiting cemeteries

In my visits to the cemeteries pictured here, I looked around for Smith graves nearby.  That was productive in the case of Cumberland Cemetery (CU003), Dexter Street, Cumberland, R.I., pictured toward the top of this post, where the Collars were buried.  The neighborhood and the other graves had a familiar feel, like I was related to most of the people there.

When I arrived at the Ballou Cemetery in Cumberland (CU009, intersection of Mendon Road and Scott) to find the graves of Joseph Razee and his wife Catherine, nothing felt familiar.  The names seemed strange and the nearby roads and landmarks were not significant to me. When I found the grave, it was for Joseph Razee, next to his wife, Mary.  So that didn’t seem right.  The gravestone gave a death date of May 8, 1814 (age 66, so born around 1748).  There was a Revolutionary War marker by the grave. I returned home to look at the vital records a little more closely.

Joseph Razee marriage entries in Cumberland portion of Arnold VR, vol. 3, p. 54.

Joseph Razee marriage entries in Cumberland portion of Arnold VR, vol. 3, p. 54.

  • I had been confused in the cemetery,but looking at theJosephRazee marriages made me think that perhaps this really WAS the right Joseph.  There were three marriages:
    • Joseph, 3d, of Joseph, of Cumberland, and Katherine Arnold, of Thomas, of Smithfield: m. by Stephen Arnold, Justice, May 18, 1777 (this was my Joseph).
    • Joseph, of Benjamin, dec., of Cumberland, and Molly Nichols, of Samuel, of North Kingstown: m. by Elder Abner Ballou, Aug. 9, 1781 (this was the other Joseph, of the pension record).
    • Joseph, Jr., of Joseph and Mary Razee, of David: m. by Isaac Razee, Justice, Aug. 18, 1808 (who was this?).
  • So the question is, who was the Joseph in marriage number 3? Did Joseph in marriage 1 lose his wife and acquire a wife named Mary in 1808 (who may have been his first cousin), who later filed for the pension in 1843?  The Fold3 pension record had a statement from the widow that she was called Mary, but had been called Molly earlier in life – so, that widow really seemed to be the one in marriage record two, not the third marriage.
The wrong Joseph Razee, 1748-1814, Revolutionary War veteran.

In Memory of Mr. Jospeh Razey, Jr, who died May 8, 1814, in the 66th year …

  • Arnold VR, volume 19 “Providence Phenix – Deaths” reports a Joseph Arnold died at Cumberland Dec. 8, 1816, age 70.  That Joseph would have been born around 1746.  The Joseph Razee who died in 1816 is buried in Peck Cemetery (CU019, Abbott Run Valley Road, Cumberland).

That means that the grave I saw at Ballou Cemetery - pictured above – very likely WAS my Joseph.  Next question – was it marked with a Revolutionary War marker because someone knows that he served, or because some well meaning person made a presumption that he was the other Joseph Razee?

So I suspect marriage record #3 DOES refer to this couple in Ballou Cemetery, especially since my Joseph did not, according to the Cumberland records, have a son named Joseph.  I know nothing about Catherine Arnold Razee’s death or burial.  I checked the Revolutionary War pension file one more time to find the exact death date of the wrong Joseph Razee  – and it was Dec 8 1816. Therefore, this Ballou Cemetery grave is for MY Joseph Razee.

Mary Razey

Mary Raze, wife of Joseph Raze, Born Jan 15, 1750  Died Jan 20, 1820  AEt. 70

On a whim I visited the Peck Cemetery anyway, to visit the other Joseph Razee’s grave, because I like to see things for myself. I was surprised to discover his marker was near some Collar graves.  Perhaps just a coincidence. There were Arnolds there too.  The marker was in tough shape, and had no flag next to it to mark a Revolutionary War soldier.  But the stone was almost unreadable, so perhaps that was to be expected.

The Razee section of Peck Cemetery, Cumberland Historic Cemetery 19, Abbot Run Valley Road.

The Razee section of Peck Cemetery, Cumberland Historic Cemetery 19, Abbot Run Valley Road – note, Joseph Razee’s marker is just to the left of this row.

Summarizing the cemetery experiences

While I have spent a lot of energy finding Joseph Razee, I still am no closer to knowing the fate of Catherine Arnold after her children were born.

I feel badly because, all in all, I have to conclude the Revolutionary War marker is on the wrong grave, or at least on the grave of the Joseph who served far less.  It should be on the Peck Cemetery Joseph Razee grave, pictured below (note: there is a far better picture of it on FindAGrave in which the medallion is still present).  I checked out the NSSAR Patriot & Grave Record.  Both Joseph Razees are entered as having marked graves, and apparently no membership applications have been submitted by their descendants.

In Memory of Mr. Joseph Razee who departed this life

In Memory of Mr. Joseph Raze who departed this life Dec 8, 1816 in the 70th year ….

Looking at books and journals

Later, I tracked down some Smiths (from the cemeteries) in some usual Smith sources (see list, below).  While not, in the end, leading me specifically to an answer, I am beginning to know much more about the many connections between the Arnolds and the Smiths, and to distinguish the various branches of the Smiths and Arnolds.  Benson’s The Arnold Family (see below), Richardson’s History of Woonsocket (see below) and the John Smith articles by Farnham (see below) are making a lot more sense to me as I recognize many of the individuals named.

Looking at maps and locations

When I encountered, for probably the fourth time, the 1748 list of Smithfield Highway Districts (Richardson’s History of Woonsocket, page 64-68), I realized that the physical descriptions of each area are now very recognizable to me.  Previously, I was mostly trying to examine names.  I would estimate that Rachel was about 14 years old in 1748, and her father could easily have still been alive, or if not, her mother or brother could have owned property.  So I am planning a more detailed analysis of that list, and, as luck would have it, I have also stumbled upon an 1806 geographically-sorted Smithfield list that I will place on the blog at a later date.

As I drove home from these Cumberland cemeteries, I passed through historic areas of Smithfield and North Providence – historic homes, Great Road, Old Louisquisset – and began to get a clearer view of the generation after generation march from Providence north.  Thomas and Rachel’s children headed north into Cumberland – and perhaps Thomas and Rachel went with them as they got older.

The three cemeteries mentioned here in eastern Cumberland - fromthe northeast corner of Rhode Island on the 1875 Rand map.

The three cemeteries mentioned here in eastern Cumberland – from the northeast corner of Rhode Island on the 1875 Rand map.

Looking at my own documentation

Revisiting my chart of Thomas Arnold’s deeds recorded in Smithfield, the names now seem more familiar, and the John and Mary Smith who sold Thomas his first piece of land seem like a HUGE clue, that I am having trouble tracing.  I think the time has come to visit the old Smithfield records at Central Falls, Rhode Island and examine these deeds in person (I had previously captured them from microfilm), along with any probate records I can find.  The deeds show that Thomas Arnold sold the farm he lived on in 1772, and the deeds appear to end completely around 1776, when his children were quite young.  Daughters Lucy and Catherine married around 1777; did the remnants of the family follow one of them?

It’s like they disappeared.  I have managed to convince myself that none of Thomas Arnold and Rachel Smith’s children left northern Rhode Island, with the possible exception of son Asa.  As I visited cemeteries and town halls it occurred to me that only the early portions of this story were happening in Smithfield – the later portions were all in Cumberland.  The two most likely possibilities are that Thomas and Rachel died quite young, in Smithfield, or they moved in with one of their sons or daughters in Cumberland.

Next Steps

  • Analyze each census record for the children to see if there are extra adults in the household.
  • I will also be tracing the John and Mary Smith mentioned in the Smithfield deed of 1764.
  • It is difficult to trace Rachel since she was born in the early 1730’s and the Smithfield records only begin in 1730.  It occurs to me to try the earlier Providence records.  I may go to the Providence City Archives for that.
  • Knowing Rachel’s first name (the SMITH is a bit speculative, based on what the books say) I have the idea that if I locate the vital records for THOMAS’ parents, whether they be in Smithfield records or in Providence, I should look around for Rachel’s family nearby.

Sources for Revolutionary War pension information

 – Arnold’s Vital Records of R.I., Volume 12 We don’t think of military pensions as vital records, but of course they are filled with just that – in some cases, the only surviving proof of a marriage or death.  Arnold’s volume 12 contains several useful indices of Revolutionary War information:

  • Cowell’s “Spirit of ’76,” Index to,
  • Rhode Island Officers of The Revolution, Killed, Died Of Disease or Pensioned
  • Rhode Island Pensioners, Census of 1820,
  • Rhode Island Pensioners, Census of 1835,
  • Rhode Island Pensioners, Census of 1840

 – Cowell’s Spirit of 76 in Rhode Island I picked up a used copy of this book last year, I think, after using it at the Allen County Public Library.  But what I didn’t realize until I started reading dozens of pension files is that author Benjamin Cowell was instrumental in processing many of the Rhode Island federal pension claims.  James N. Arnold described him in his introduction to the Spirit of 76 index which appears in volume 12 of Vital Record of the of Rhode Island 1636-1850:

Judge Benjamin Cowell, the author of this work, which was published by him in 1850, was born in Wrentham, Mass., in 1781, and died in Providence, R. 1., May 6, 1863. He graduated from Brown University in the class of 1803. He studied law and settled in Providence. For a long term he was pension attorney for this district. During this long term he became acquainted with many of the old soldiers and he could, from his large mass of anecdote and collections, have produced several very interesting volumes. The partial list he published was perhaps an afterthought with him in late life for, had he commenced with his first practice with the object 1n view of publishing later, he would have had an immense manuscript which to-day would be priceless.

- Fold3.com (a paid subscription site) is a terrific source for Revolutionary War information. 

Helpful sources for the Smithfield Arnolds/Smiths/Ballous

  • Angell, Frank C.  Annals of Centerdale in the town of North Providence, Rhode Island.  Central Falls, R.I.: Frank C. Angell, 1909.
  • Arnold, Welcome
  • Ballou, Adin. An Elaborate History and Genealogy of the Ballous in America Providence: E.L. Freeman & Son, 1888.
  • Bamburg, Cherry Fletcher. “Amy (Smith) Russell and Her Family.”Rhode Island Roots  37, No. 2 (June, 2011): 57-78.
  • Bartlett, John R. (arranged by).  Census of the Inhabitants of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations … 1774.  Providence: Knowles, Anthony & Co., 1858.
  • Benson, Richard H.  The Arnold Family of Smithfield, Rhode Island.  Boston: Newbury Street Press, 2009.
  • Cowell, Benjamin. Spirit of 76 in Rhode Island, or, Sketches of the Efforts of the Government and People in the War of the Revolution.  Boston: A.J. Wright, 1850.
  • Farnham, Charles William. “John Smith, The Miller, of Providence, Rhode Island – Some of His Descendants” in Genealogies of Rhode Island Families From Rhode Island Periodicals, volume II, p. 1 – 150.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1983 [originally appeared in the 1960's as a series of articles in Rhode Island History, v. 20 - 24].
  • Greene, Welcome A (1795-1870) Notes on the Genealogy of the Arnold Family.  Manuscript C5859, New England Historic Genealogical Society Library, Boston.  Thomas Arnold is person 6114.
  • Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1790 – Rhode Island.  Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1977.
  • Richardson, E. History of Woonsocket.  Woonsocket: S.S. Foss, 1876.  
  • Sanborn, Melinda Lutz. “Smithfield, Rhode Island Death Records Culled from Probate.”  New England Historic Genealogical Register, October 1992, p. 343-351.
  • “Smithfield 1778 Tax List” a series of articles in Rhode Island Roots (a periodical from the Rhode Island Genealogical Society), 1995-1997.
  • Steere, Thomas. History of the Town of Smithfield.  Providence: E.L. Freeman, 1881.

For further information on the various Arnold families in Rhode Island, see my post Meet the Arnolds.

The post you are reading is located at:  http://onerhodeislandfamily.com/2014/07/04/pensions-cemeteries-patriots/

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I realized recently that I hadn’t really explored the journal of the Rhode Island Historical Society Rhode Island History (1942 – present).  There is a good index at the RIHS website.  I started with the index, but I also downloaded (from the screen just mentioned) and perused the complete pdf table of contents for the issues online (seems to include all issues minus most recent five years).

The full issues are available online.  When an article of interest is found, the issue it’s contained in can be downloaded from the search results screen for free.

Step one – the Arnolds of Smithfield

As I perused Rhode Island History an article about the Arnolds of Smithfield (1) caught my eye.  The article was interesting and informative, although it contained one or two errors that I know were corrected in the newer, standard work on the Arnolds of Smithfield by Richard H. Benton (2).  As the article progressed it veered off from my line toward the better-known Eleazer Arnold line, and some of his descendants (the author was detailing his wife’s lineage).  That’s not particularly helpful to me.

But I did what I always do – I examined the footnotes.  Each person covered had a set following their entry.  In the first three generations, I was familiar with all of the sources (many of them were covered in this post about early R.I. research) but one of them struck me as something I had not seen before:  Annals of Centerdale by Frank C. Angell, 1909 (3).

First house in Centerdale, Epenetus Olney Homestead, 1700-02. Annals of Centerdale, p. 24.

First house in Centerdale, Epenetus Olney Homestead, 1700-02. Annals of Centerdale, p. 24.

Step two – The Angells of Centerdale, Rhode Island

It would never occur to me that Centerdale could hold any answers for me; I thought my Smithfield ancestors were farther from Providence than the tiny old mill hamlet of Centerdale, nestled in the urban clutter of North Providence, Rhode Island.  But as the original Providence settlers spread west and north, could they have stopped for a generation or two in the area that became Centerdale?

I found the book remarkably interesting.  As I read it, I realized that my entire Arnold line, which had originated in Providence among the Angells, Prays, Woodwards, Comstocks, and Browns, seemed to appear in this northwestern corner of early Providence.  And SMITHS were intermingled with them on every page.

The dwelling house built by the state for Jacob Goff, 1777.  Part of the state's attempt to establish a powder mill during the Revolutionary War.  Annals of Centerdale, p. 35.

The dwelling house built by the state for Jacob Goff, 1777 – part of the state’s attempt to establish a powder mill in this area during the Revolutionary War. It was a spectacular failure; read more in Annals of Centerdale, p. 35.

Step three – Some background on the Smith problem

My Arnold line from Smithfield begins with my 6th great grandmother, Lucy Arnold.  Her mother is Rachel (possibly Smith).  Her father is Thomas Arnold.  A glance at this portion of my tree shows the well-researched Arnold branch, and the empty Smith branch:

The missing Smiths, courtesy of my Ancestry tree

The missing Smiths, courtesy of my Ancestry tree

I have no information about Rachel Smith at all, other than her first name, which appears on some of her husband’s deeds, and the oft-repeated rumor of her last name being Smith.  So I was excited to find all these Smiths amongst the Arnolds.

Step four – Finding the Smiths on the map

The Annals of Centerdale held important stories about many of these families, and a map (p. 10):
map from Annals of Centerdale showing Land of Thomas Angell, Land of Richard Pray at the top (north); then Land of John Smith, Land of Epenetus Olney, Land of John Whipple.

map from Annals of Centerdale showing Land of Thomas Angell, Land of Richard Pray in the top corners,  then Land of John Smith, Land of Epenetus Olney, Land of John Whipple. (p. 10; my captions added in color, and my tilt to head north)

Among those to thus push out into the common land and take up holdings therein were Thomas Angell, John Smith, Epenetus Olney, and Richard Pray, and these men appear to have been the pioneers in the settlement of that portion of the Woonasquatucket valley which afterward became known as Centerdale. (p. 6-7)
The original proprietors of the land on the east side of the river where the village of Centerdale is located were John Smith, Epenetus Olney, and Richard Pray. To establish the exact boundary of the several allotments would be impossible, but by patient research a map of the original farms has been prepared for this work; and reference thereto will serve to give a general idea of their location. (p. 11)
However, it is certain that John Smith (probably the miller) took up this land, and also that he had a son John Smith; and when John Smith, Senior, died, a portion of his estate lying upon the east side of the Woonasquatucket river was given to his son John Smith, Junior. This farm contained 160 acres, and was bounded as follows: Starting at a point on the Woonasquatucket river a few rods beyond the present junction of Waterman avenue and Smith street, and running in an easterly direction 320 rods, or nearly one mile; thence running in a southerly direction 80 rods, or one-quarter of a mile; thence running in a westerly direction 320 rods to the river; thence following the river in a northerly direction to the first-mentioned bound. (See map.) (p. 12)
The land adjoining the Smith claim on the north (see map) was taken up from the original rights by Richard Pray; but it is impossible to determine the exact date, as he was an extensive land owner and took up land from the commonings in different parts of the colony, the descriptions of which, as given in the deeds, are so confusing and indefinite that many of the claims are impossible to locate.  (p. 14)
Centerdale is halfway between Providence and Smithfield, Rhode Island. map courtesy of google maps.

Today Centerdale is halfway between Providence and Smithfield, Rhode Island. map courtesy of google maps.

Step 5 – Finding out more about the Smiths
It began to seem very possible that the great-great-grandchildren of the Centerdale settlers could, after the families had moved farther up the road to Smithfield, have married.  Armed with this clearer understanding of the Smiths I did not have to look far for some further help with the descendants of John Smith, the miller.
There in Rhode Island History I spotted an article “John Smith, the Miller, of Providence, Rhode Island, and some of his Descendants” by George William Farnham (5).  It appeared in 1961.  Articles on this topic continued for a total of 16 issues between 1961 and 1965.  I had previously seen these in Genealogies of Rhode Island Families (4) but only used the index, and decided it was not helpful.  I think these days I would take a more studied approach to figuring out who these descendants were, and where they were.  I would also check closely for any Smith associates I have found, meanwhile, for Thomas Arnold, for instance, from his land records in Smithfield.
The articles are fascinating, detailing the life of John the miller (early John Smiths in Providence are always referred to by occupation) and many descendants in the first five generations.  The first mill was an important part of early Providence, and located at the intersection of Charles and Mill Streets. The articles are filled with discussions of evidence, quotes from notable books, and information gained from town and court records, newspapers, and manuscripts.
Map of Rhode Island, Surveyed by James Helme and William Chandler, 1741. Note that Providence is bordered directly by Smithfield and The Gore to the north, and by Scituate to the west.  From Providence in Colonial Times by Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, 1912, p. 206.

Map of Rhode Island, Surveyed by James Helme and William Chandler, 1741. Note that Providence is bordered directly by Smithfield and The Gore to the north, and by Scituate to the west. From Providence in Colonial Times by Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, 1912, p. 206. (my typing added)

Step 6 – Learning more about the expansion of Providence
I now realize I don’t actually know that much about the patterns of expansion from the earliest Providence settlement into the remainder of what is now known as Providence County.  Looking at the Centerdale book and some additional sources, I have learned a lot about the Seven Mile Line and the fights during the 1660’s to retain control of Providence among the wealthier landowners only – legal maneuvers that were very troubling to Roger Williams.  More on that in the future.

Meanwhile, I have some John Smiths to investigate.

Notes

  1. Pitman, H. Minot.  “Some Arnold of Smithfield, R.I.”  Rhode Island History 13-4 (October 1954): 111-123.
  2. Benson, Richard H.  The Arnold Family of Smithfield, Rhode Island.  Boston: Newbury Street Press, 2009.
  3. Angell, Frank C.  Annals of Centerdale in the town of North Providence, Rhode Island.  Central Falls, R.I.: Frank C. Angell, 1909.
  4. Genealogies of Rhode Island Families From Rhode Island Periodicals, vol. 2, Smith – Yates. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1983.  p. 1 – 150.
  5. Farnham, George William. “John Smith, the Miller, of Providence, Rhode Island, and some of his Descendants.”   Rhode Island History 20-4 (October 1961): 109-118.  [Continued in 15 more articles, every issue of 1962, 1963, 1964 and Jan-April-July 1965.  All articles also appear in Genealogies of Rhode Island Families (see my note 4, above.) ]

The post you are reading is located at:  http://onerhodeislandfamily.com/2015/08/03/a-hint-from-an-angell/

Centerdale School House. Annals of Centerdale, p. 69.

Centerdale School House. Annals of Centerdale, p. 69.

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Since post one and post two on Lucy Arnold, I have been unable to pursue most of the on-site research I need to do, but I have pursued some research on a number of collateral lines that I was able to do from home.

The problems:

Lucy Arnold married Richard5 (John4, John3, John 2, Maturin) Ballou in Smithfield, Rhode Island around 1777 and they became the parents of nine children, of which my ancestor, Mercy Ballou, is the oldest, born in 1778.  I am trying to determine:

  • whether Lucy Arnold is the daughter of Thomas5 (Thomas4, Richard3, Richard2, Thomas1) and Rachel.
  • the likely family of Thomas’ wife, Rachel (possibly Smith).
Here is what I learned:
  • According to Benson’s Arnold book (see below), a Greene manuscript (see below) is his source that Rachel was a Smith.  Another possible clue that I noticed is Benson’s reference on page 242 that

“Thomas [Arnold] purchased 4 acres of land from Thomas Smith on 20 June 1767″ (p. 242).

  • Looking around, I find a Smithfield land owner named Thomas4 (Thomas3, Edward2, Christopher1) Smith, (1697-1777), who was the son of Thomas and Phebe (Arnold) Smith.  Thomas Smith would be Thomas Arnold’s second cousin once removed.  Thomas Smith was a Quaker who married twice and inherited Smithfield property from his father, and his birth in 1697 is noted in Benson’s Arnold book.  It’s doubtful he is Rachel’s father because I think this would have been caught by now, but it would be good to pin down exactly who the seller “Thomas Smith” was.
  • Like most early Rhode Island residents, the Arnolds were opposed to the various New England authoritarian churches.  Some of the Smithfield Arnolds were Quakers, and were instrumental in establishing a Meeting in Smithfield.
  • My branch of the Thomas Arnold family were driven out of Massachusetts after they became Baptists.  They settled in Providence and later Smithfield, Rhode Island.
  • The Ballous were active in the Six Principle Baptist Church in Cumberland.

    Elder Ballou Meeting House, Cumberland, R.I.

  • In line after line of the ancestors of these Ballou, Arnold, and Aldrich families, who all ended up in Smithfield/Cumberland/Wrentham, I notice that many branches came from nearby Mendon, Mass.  Other branches were among the original founders of Providence. In terms of narrowing down the Smiths, this means that Rachel Smith could possibly have been descended from a Mendon family of Smiths, as well as several early Providence Smith families. I suspect that if my current lead about the land transaction is a dead end, it may take me a long time to prove anything about her.
  • The Ballou book (see below) has become more and more valuable as I attempt to place these people in a historical context.  For the first time, I realized that the discrepancies I see about Cumberland, R.I. and Wrentham, Massachusetts are because it was the same place.  I knew that “Attleboro Gore” was a Massachusetts settlement that transferred to Cumberland, R.I. around 1745; what I didn’t realize was that the Cumberland section my ancestors lived in WAS Attleboro Gore.  This will help me to further investigate land records.
  • Comparing family connections among the Thomas Arnold (1733 – ) and Richard Ballou families has resulted in lots of distant connections, none of which seem significant.  I believe Richard Ballou acquired his property through his own family (NOT from his wife’s father), but I need to look at each of his deeds.

Next steps:

  • Find old maps of the households in Attleboro Gore/Cumberland.
  • Pursue Cumberland deeds and also Smithfield deeds (which may be in Central Falls) for Thomas Arnold and Richard Ballou’s activities (already have one for Richard Ballou)

and two steps from the last post that have had to wait:

  • Check out Union Village in person, and also Union Cemetery
  • Research John and Mary Smith

Sources:

  • Austin, John Osborne.  The Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island, with Additions and Corrections by John Osborne Austin, and Additions and Corrections by G. Andrews Moriarty.  Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1969.
  • Ballou, Adin. An Elaborate History and Genealogy of the Ballous in America Providence: E.L. Freeman & Son, 1888.
  • Benson, Richard H.  The Arnold Family of Smithfield, Rhode Island.  Boston: Newbury Street Press, 2009.
  • Greene, Welcome Arnold. “Notes of Genealogy of the Arnold Family.”  Unpublished typescript based on a manuscript complied starting in the 1840’s. 1914. Knight Memorial Library, Providence. [photocopy accessed at the NEHGS Manuscript Collection].
  • Holman, Winifred Lovering. “Hope Allen and Granddaughter Deborah (Wager) Henchman.”  New England Historic Genealogical Register 102 (July 1948): 177-191 (for my Boyce/Allen/Clifford lines)
  • Snow, Nora Emma. The Snow-Estes Ancestry. 2 volumes.  Hillburn, N.Y., privately printed, 1939.[full text was accessed on Ancestry.com]
  • Torrey, Clarence Almon. New England Marriages Prior to 1700.  3 volumes. Boston, New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2011.

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After my previous work on Lucy Arnold I decided to accept, for now, the consensus reached during my consultation at the NEHGS in October, which is that Lucy may be the daughter of Thomas and Rachel (Smith?) Arnold, as found on page 243 of The Arnold Family of Smithfield, Rhode Island by Richard H. Benson.  I thought I could look at details of that tree and perhaps get a sense of whether this particular Lucy Arnold’s family seems to fit with the branches that I am already sure about.

Got Some Inspiration

Last Friday I read some articles from Elizabeth Shown Mills’ new “Historic Pathways” website.  I found them inspirational.  I especially enjoyed In Search of “Mr. Ball”: An Exercise in Finding Fathers.  The moral of THAT story was, perhaps you can’t find the records for a family because the family never existed.  Also, “missing” information may simply be missing from the index.  Do your own record perusal.  And analyze your evidence early and often.  One factor that stood out in  many of her articles was the staggering level of detail she attained while researching these lives.  She knew the neighbors, the history, the towns, the relatives, the businesses, and the geography.  Do I know all of that on my difficult problems?  Heck, no.

Time to look around

So I stepped back to learn a little more.  I read an 1881 book from Archives.org called The History of the Town of Smithfield, Rhode Island by Thomas Steere.

I checked a lot of sibling marriages out in these resources:

  • Torrey’s New England Marriages Prior to 1700, 3 volumes
  • Austin’s Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island
  • Genealogies of Rhode Island Families From Rhode Island Periodicals, 2 volumes, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1983.
  • Dennis Darling of Braintree and Mendon and Some of his Descendants, 2006.
  • Benson, Richard, The Arnold Family of Smithfield, Rhode Island, 2009.
  • Ballou, Adin, Ballous in America, 1888.

I have to admit prior to this “background check” I didn’t realize how many of my ancestors had Smithfield ties.  The Arnolds, Aldriches, Browns, Smiths and Comstocks are everywhere.

Some things I learned

Peleg Arnold portrait from 1815 by Arnold Steere, currently in the John Hay Library at Brown University

  • Of the many (14!) siblings and half-siblings of Thomas Arnold (the suspected father of Lucy Arnold), one, Peleg Arnold served in the Continental Congress, became Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court and founded the Providence Society for the Abolition of Slavery
  • In Austin’s Genealogical Dictionary I gleaned that my Smith connection (Lucy’s mother MAY be Rachel Smith) is either from the Christopher Smith line, or the “John the Miller” Smith line
  • Some Darling branches, pretty close to mine, actually lived in Smithfield
  • Many of the Arnolds were Quakers and there seem to be Quakers among the Ballous
  • Union Village looks like the spot where many of these families lived, and some are buried in the nearby Union Cemetery
  • Lucy Arnold and her husband, Richard Ballou, moved from Smithfield to the next town, Cumberland, and remained there
Looking at Last Names

Here are the spouses of LUCY’s father’s (Thomas Arnold’s) siblings (her mother, Rachel (Smith?) is still a mystery):

  • Comstock (Brown)
  • Aldrich (White)
  • Bucklin (Whipple)
  • Buffum
  • Arnold (Arnold)
  • Eddy (Whipple)
  • Arnold (Arnold)
  • Capron (Scott)

And the spouses of LUCY’s siblings, if known:

  • Razee
  • Eddy (Arnold)
  • Caller

Here are the spouses of Lucy’s HUSBAND’S (Richard Ballou’s) aunts and uncles:

  • Sayles
  • Lapham
  • Sprague
  • Kempton
  • Mowry (Whipple)

And the spouses of Lucy’s HUSBAND’S siblings:

  • Leland (Lovett)
  • Phillips
  • Whitman
  • Sayles
  • Streeter

So the matches are:

  • Whipple

Not much overlap for a relatively small town.  But, I’ll want to learn exactly where those Whipples lived.

Along the way, I found a few stray Smiths – to be researched later:

  • Richard Ballou’s cousin David (Abraham, John, John, Maturin) married a Mary Smith
  • Richard Ballou’s cousin Phebe (Abraham, John, John, Maturin) married a John Smith

John and Mary Smith?  oh goodie.  can’t wait!

Next steps
  • Check out Union Village in person, and also Union Cemetery
  • Research John and Mary Smith
  • Learn more about the Whipples mentioned here
  • Richard and Lucy Ballou are not in the popular Rhode Island Historical Cemeteries Database Index.  But I need to find strategies to try and find their graves since they could possibly be near Lucy’s relatives.  Lucy’s possible grandfather Thomas Arnold Sr.  is buried in Union Cemetery.  I guess I’ll check out who’s there with him and go from there.
  • Armed with this additional background, re-examine Richardson’s History of Woonsocket when I am in Boston in early January.
  • The Rhode Island Historical Society Library has an extensive Quaker collection.  I may try to learn more through that.

My family says it’s Christmas.  Gotta go.  Wonderful New Year to all!

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